Living Breakwaters

Widespread destruction in the wake of Superstorm Sandy brought newfound focus on mitigating sea level rise and storm surge along the southern shoreline of Staten Island. AKRF provided environmental review and permitting for two HUD-funded coastal and social resiliency enhancements within a single project site: Living Breakwaters and the Tottenville Shoreline Protection Project. We developed sampling protocols for water quality, fish and benthic, sediment contaminants and clam tissue, and horseshoe crab egg surveys with state and federal agencies. We also completed consultations with federal agencies under Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act and under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, and developed mitigation alternatives.

Renderings courtesy of SCAPE

Wetland delineation

Horseshoe crab sampling

Horseshoe crab sampling and processing

Identifying presence of rare, threatened, or endangered (RTE) species

Archaeological work


A Joint Record of Decision and Findings Statement pursuant to NEPA and SEQRA was issued for the project in August 2018, and in-water construction began in September 2021.

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