Section 316(b)

AKRF specializes in Section 316(b) compliance with the Clean Water Act, which requires that cooling water intake structures of power plants and other facilities minimize adverse environmental impacts, particularly entrainment (organisms being drawn into cooling water systems) and impingement (organisms being pinned against screens or other parts of the intake structures).

Our natural resources experts prepare comprehensive demonstration studies to document that a facility employs the best technology available to reduce impacts. We also advise on the implementation of facility retrofits or environmental restoration measures.

We track and comment on proposed federal and state regulations, develop regulatory language and alternative compliance approaches, critique case studies prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and represent clients before USEPA and state agencies.

The scope of our services includes:

  • 316(b) compliance strategies and preparing applications for both new and existing facilities
  • Fish population assessments and scientific studies for assessing the impacts of various intake technologies on fish, shellfish, and their larvae
  • Environmental impact statements for intake structures
  • Regulatory language and alternative compliance approaches
  • Expert witness testimony